Scales are also plotted in frequency units (Hz), usually with the reference compound assigned a value of 0 Hz. This scale also increases to the left and is usually of use when coupling constants (which are independent of field) are being measured.
Although absolute electronic shielding values are inconvenient to measure, one may hear people refer to one resonance being "more shielded" or "less shielded" than another, The shielding constant, σ, for a particular nucleus in a particular environment can be expressed by rearranging the Larmor equation.The shielding scale increases to the right.
In the age of continuous wave NMR spectrometers, NMR spectra were measured by irradiating the sample with continuous wave radiation and sweeping the magnetic field from a low value (on the left) to a high value (on the right). The scales were sometimes plotted in magnetic field units and one still hears about one peak being described as "upfield" or "downfield" from another. These terms have little relevance in FT NMR and should be avoided.
Some of the older literature reported 1H NMR peak positions on a τ scale. Here, τ was equal to (10 ppm - δ ) and the scale increased to the right. This is no longer in use and has caused considerable confusion. It should be avoided.