The 2D 13C INADEQUATE method provides double quantum - single quantum (DQ/SQ) correlations and enables one to determine the carbon - carbon skeleton of small organic molecules. The method is quite insensitive for 13C since the natural abundance of 13C is only 1.1% and the chance of having two adjacent 13C nuclei is only 1 in 8264. For spins other than 13C, for which the natural abundance is high, one expects the sensitivity of DQ/SQ correlation spectroscopy to be much higher. 11B has a natural abundance of 80.42% and the chance of having two adjacent 11B nuclei in compounds with boron-boron bonds is 1 in 1.55. 11B NMR spectra are often sufficiently broad due to efficient quadrupolar relaxation such that homonuclear 11B - 11B J coupling is unresolved however the T2's are long enough to allow the collection of 2D 11 B COSY and 2D DQ/SQ data. The figure below shows the 2D 11B DQ/SQ correlation spectrum of ortho-carborane. The 11B bonding connectivity can be determined easily from the spectrum.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
The 2D 13C INADEQUATE (Incredibe Natural Abundance DoublE QUAmtum Transfer Experiment) is undoubtedly one of the most definitive, yet under-used NMR techniques able to assign chemical structures of small organic molecules. It gives a connectivity map for all carbon atoms in the molecule. The reason that it is so under-used is that it relies on one bond 13C - 13C coupling therefore, adjacent carbon atoms must both be of the 13C isotope. Since 13C is only 1.1% naturally abundant, the chance of having two adjacent 13C atoms is approximately 1 in 8300, reducing the sensitivity of the measurement drastically. As a result, 2D INADEQUATE spectra can only be run on very concentrated samples. The sensitivity afforded by high magnetic field strengths and cryogenically cooled probes has certainly made these measurements more accessible than they have been in the past and they may be within reach when sample quantity and solubility are not a problem. The 2D 13C INADEQUATE spectrum of ~450 mg of limonene in benzene-d6 was acquired on a Bruker TCI H/C/N cryoprobe at 600 MHz and is shown in the figure below.